What happens when computers program themselves?
Artificial intelligence could transform our world. But first, ERC researchers are trying to answer the basic questions – about life and the universe – that AI poses
Martin Vechev is an associate professor at ETH Zurich, where he leads the SRI Lab. Prior to ETH, he was a researcher at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in the US. He obtained his PhD from Cambridge University. His current research spans a range of AI topics including systems that combine programming languages and machine learning to solve tasks not previously possible, foundations and applications of probabilistic programming, and making AI systems more secure, reliable and interpretable. He is the recipient of various awards including an ERC Starting Grant, SIGPLAN and CACM Research Highlights, several faculty awards (Facebook, Google), an Atanasoff prize for outstanding young researchers awarded by the President of Bulgaria, and others. He is also a co-founder of Deepcode.ai, a start-up building the next-generation of AI-based programming tools.
Software is eating the world, venture capitalist Marc Andreessen noted in 2011. That was six years after renown American software engineer Grady Booch estimated that more than one trillion lines of code had already been written, with a further 30 billion lines added each year. Today, those figures are likely to be much bigger still. Whereas Microsoft Office 2001 had about 25 million lines of code, Microsoft Office 2013 has about 45 million.
The steady rise in the amount of code reflects the growing complexity and richness of software – with more programming languages and libraries of code. For developers, that also means headaches. “As it becomes harder to utilise the (code) libraries, people make more mistakes,” says Vechev, the ETH Zurich researcher.
But help is at hand. Much of the software developed in recent years is open source, meaning that the code is publicly available and viewable. This has ushered in the era of “Big Code”, a shorthand term for this vast and growing library of open source code. This library can be used to train computers to identify patterns in software, just as advanced web services, such as Google Photos or Google Translate, process millions of samples to learn to identify particular images or phrases.
In a project funded by the ERC, Vechev and his team are harnessing Big Code. “We are building an AI system that can learn from lots of data showing how existing programmers and developers write code and how they fix code.”
What’s it take to make a computer smart?
Science often advances in trends – and artificial intelligence is today an uber-trend among eager computer scientists and engineers around the world. One measure: AI patenting is way up – with an average annual growth rate of 43 per cent, according to the European Patent Office.
But what’s involved in creating AI? Experts in artificial intelligence have broken the job of computerised thinking into several related tasks. First, a computer needs information to work on and a way to store it. Then it needs a way to reason about the information, and to learn how to perform tasks (the “machine learning” part of AI). And, of course, it needs a way to talk to the bothersome humans who keep asking it questions.
Want to dive deeper into the subject? Here’s a good blog by Sridhar Mahadevan, a senior researcher at software firm Adobe Systems, with a reading list.
To do this, the computer also has to estimate how good a particular piece of code might be. “It is more complex than simply capturing patterns” in the software, notes Vechev. “The solution also uses probabilistic methods: we can attach a probability that this is likely to be good code for a particular task.” That could lead to software solutions that are difficult or impossible to develop through traditional approaches.
Vechev says his ERC-funded project takes advantage of a confluence of three factors: the growing body of Big Code, the evolution of machine learning algorithms and recent progress in automated reasoning engines – software a computer uses to think its way through a problem. As there is no such thing as complete information or data, machines need to be able to reason to fill in the blanks. For example, if a machine was asked to find out in what country Dom Perignon is made, the system would need to be able to reason that Dom Perignon is a type of champagne, champagne is only produced in the region of Champagne, which lies in the country of France, as explained by AI startup company Grakn AI.
The specific tasks Vechev’s team is working on right now are fairly basic. “Within the timeframe of this project, we think this is achievable for small low-level tasks, such as a search for a graph, sorting a set of numbers in a very efficient way or writing a program that manipulates pictures, modifying or cropping an image and saving the result,” Vechev notes. In the long-term, he is hoping his team can create a system that is able to write sophisticated code from high-level descriptions. “If the system could beat an expert human in a programing competition, that would be success,” he says.
From there, managers might be able to give instructions to computers and robots, just as they do to other human beings, rather than meticulously writing precise code. This could trigger a paradigm shift in the way software is created, with implications for millions of developers worldwide. It could also help to streamline and improve the development of machine learning, natural language processing, programming languages and software engineering.
To commercialise his research, Vechev and his former PhD student Veselin Raychev have co-founded an ETH spin-off, called DeepCode, which is developing a new AI-based system for automating code review.
With work like this, some analysts see AI entering a “third wave” of development. In the first wave, in the 1970s, hard-coded AI systems generated decisions that could be interpreted and explained by human beings, but couldn’t deal with uncertainty and noise. The second, current wave of AI solutions, involving deep learning, has its own limitations. “They can be used to learn how to drive a car, for example, but they are not explainable,” says Vechev. “But the system also needs to be interpretable: Code development needs to be transparent. Our Big Code project is an example of a third generation system in that it is a step towards a general AI system, more like the human brain.”
Aude Billard is professor and head of the Learning Algorithms and Systems Laboratory at the School of Engineering of Switzerland’s École Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. She received a MSc in physics from EPFL, a MSc in knowledge-based systems and a PhD in artificial intelligence from the University of Edinburgh. She has been an adjunct faculty member at the Computer Science Department of the University of Southern California since 2003. She was the recipient of the Intel Corporation Teaching award, the Swiss National Science Foundation career award, the Outstanding Young Person in Science and Innovation from the Swiss Chamber of Commerce and the IEEE-RAS Best Reviewer Award. Her research spans the fields of machine learning and robotics, with applications in industrial robotics and assistive robotics. Her research received best paper awards at IEEE TRO, ICRA, IROS, NIPS, Humanoids, ROMAN and was featured in the BBC, IEEE Spectrum, Wired and other media.
Swiss researchers visit a watch-making school, to teach robots to think like a craftsman
Could robots put Swiss watchmakers out of business? Not for a long time. In fact, robots really struggle to emulate the kind of delicate, fine-tuned manipulation to be found in industries like watchmaking.
Researchers wire up the skilled hands of a watchmaker.
It takes four years for human apprentices to learn the intricate skills required to assemble a hand-made Swiss watch. That’s because they are working at a scale where their normal sense of touch alone isn’t sufficient to guide the precise manoeuvres and fine manipulation required to build the tiny mechanisms. Today, that kind of delicacy is beyond any robot. They don’t, for example, typically manipulate flexible materials, pack fragile goods such as wine glasses, or perform other tasks that require humans to “feel” their way.
How to close the dexterity gap between humans and robots is the subject of an ERC-funded research project being run by Aude Billard, a professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. “We roboticists need to understand how humans learn to do tasks that go beyond your natural sense of touch,” says Billard. “In the case of watchmaking, humans manage to control micro-level displacements and forces with precision, which is challenging given that the human sensory system is incredibly noisy,” she adds, referring to the continual input we get from our senses. The questions puzzling Billard are: How do humans learn to place their arms, fingers and joints and constrain them to overcome this sensory-motor noise? How do they manage to model the world in which they’re working?
One hypothesis is that we simplify. For instance, we may learn to forbid our joints to move in a certain way, only allowing the tactile impact to happen in specific directions. And we appear to filter our sensory inputs, focusing on what’s important for the task at hand. Billard notes that beginner drivers tend to pay attention to everything that is happening around the vehicle, while experienced drivers have learnt that not everything matters; they subconsciously apply the right amount of pressure to the brake and accelerator pedals to adapt to each situation.
The art of watches
What’s so hard about making a watch? The graph here, based on Billard’s studies, shows the difference between a senior and junior watchmaker: the skilled worker makes fewer time-consuming mistakes.
Here, Billard’s team explains their work in more detail (in French.)
This diagramme breaks down the task of assembling a watch into different actions. Most of the time goes into preparation.
So that brings her to the watch industry. Her research team is following a cohort of apprentices at one of the most famous watchmaking schools in Switzerland, as they gradually learn, through repetition, to achieve the right level of precision in each task without breaking the delicate mechanisms in the watch. Billard’s team has mounted sensors on the apprentices to measure the position of the fingers and the forces applied. It also plans to employ a device to monitor the electrical activity in the muscles in the apprentice’s forearms.
Of course, her aim is not to disrupt her country’s most famous industry. ”We are not interested in teaching robots how to make watches,” Billard stresses. “We are most interested in how robots can learn to implement that kind of process and which variables you need to learn to control precisely.”
Billard’s research team is also developing software that can enable robots to interact with moving objects, so they can, for example, learn to catch items by achieving the right orientation. Although assembling a watch and catching a ball may seem like very different skills, Billard says they both rely heavily on preparation and assuming the right body posture – something human beings learn with practice.
“Skilled watchmakers spend about 80 per cent of the time spent on a task just placing the finger correctly,” she explains. “Doing the task itself is very quick. The same is true of catching an object. Preparation is important.”
The ultimate goal is to create robots that can learn many different tasks, rather than being hard-wired to perform a specific job. “We want to reach a point where robots have a flexible brain, so that when they get out of the factory, they learn whatever task you want them to do,” Billard says.
Josef Urban is a principal researcher at the Czech Institute of Informatics, Robotics and Cybernetics (CIIRC) of the Czech Technical University in Prague. His main interest is development of combined inductive and deductive AI methods over large formal (fully semantically specified) knowledge bases, such as large corpora of formally stated mathematical definitions, theorems and proofs. His systems have won several competitions in this field. He received his MSc in mathematics and PhD in computer science from the Charles University in Prague, worked as an assistant professor in Prague, and as a researcher at the University of Miami and Radboud University Nijmegen.
Sure, computers can do sums. But can they think like a mathematician? In Prague Josef Urban wants to make computers prove theorems
In 1606, British privateer Sir Walter Raleigh had a puzzle: What’s the best way to stack cannonballs on the deck of a ship? Through a mutual friend, the problem eventually got to Prague and Johannes Kepler, the famous mathematician and astronomer. Kepler’s conjecture: stack the balls in a hexagonal pyramid, with each layer nestled in the spaces created by the balls below.
Of oranges and cannonballs: Bradley Moore, of Mayville State University in North Dakota, prepared this explanation of the Kepler Conjecture.
Over the past 400 years, generations of mathematicians have tried to prove Kepler was right. In 1998, an American mathematician, Thomas Hales, developed a proof that other mathematicians certified as 99 per cent certain; but it took another two decades to create a formal proof that was rock solid – and that required the help of computers to run down every possible way of solving the problem.
To remove the need for such arduous legwork, AI researchers are trying to get computers routinely to verify and replicate the feats of reasoning exhibited by mathematicians. Josef Urban, principal researcher at the Czech Institute of Informatics, Robotics and Cybernetics in Prague and Cezary Kaliszyk at the University of Innsbruck are seeking to develop computer systems that help to automate the verification of complex mathematical theories and mission-critical software and hardware systems.
Proving that a huge software program is error-free is no easy task. Those who do it call themselves “proof engineers.”
The value of this work was highlighted in 2009 when a team at National ICT Australia (NICTA) headed by Gerwin Klein completed a ground-breaking formal proof of the correctness of some general purpose software at the core of an operating system, known as a kernel. The NICTA team were then able to state categorically that the kernel will never crash or perform an unsafe operation, while also enabling the team to predict precisely how the kernel will behave in every possible situation. However, the kernel in question is relatively small, comprising just 8,700 lines of code, together with 600 lines of assembler. The challenge for Urban and his team is to create systems that can help with automated verification of much larger programs.
Some mathematical developments, such as the formal proof of the Kepler Conjecture, can involve billions of steps, Urban explains. “Ten years ago, people would have said using computers to verify such theorems is an interesting idea, but you can’t do it in practice,” he says. “Now many more people than just me are thinking that this is something that can be done to a great extent.”
Supported by funding from the ERC, Urban is trying to teach computers to figure out for themselves how to create proofs of mathematical theorems. “We need a big corpus of mathematics for a machine to learn from. (Hales’) project is one of the best examples, so we are using this data to try to train machine reasoning.”
Urban’s main idea is to build feedback loops between what the computer learns by studying the mathematical data, and new reasoning techniques. It does this repeatedly, continually improving the algorithms. The trained networks guide the logical reasoning engines, which in turn produce more and more proofs and reasoning data to learn from – a virtuous circle. In this way, the system gradually gets smarter at applying the reasoning rules that lead to a conclusion. The goal is to create powerful automation services for mathematicians.
Urban’s project is the culmination of years of work focused on bridging the divide between mathematics and computer programming. For that to happen, mathematical theories need to be written in a way that computers can understand and verify. “Then they can read the mathematics and report any mistakes,” Urban explains. “They might even produce some deep elaboration, making millions and millions of steps very clear, so they can be verified by a simple proof checker.” This is an old dream, first expressed 25 years ago in the QED Manifesto, a proposal by a group of mathematicians to create a computer database of all mathematical knowledge.
The QED Manifesto
“Quod erat demonstrandum” is a mathematician’s equivalent of “The End”: the conclusion of a proof, or “that which was to be demonstrated,” in Latin. But it’s also in the title of a famous project proposed in 1993 to capture all of mathematical knowledge in one huge computer database - in all its rigour, formality and glory. In essence, a silicon god of mathematics. Needless to say, it hasn’t yet been accomplished.
Urban’s research could also make it more straightforward to verify complex software and hardware designs, on which today's information society critically depends. Complete formal verification is the only known way to guarantee that a system is free of programming errors. Such guarantees will become increasingly valuable as computers begin to drive cars, land aeroplanes and take over activities that require high levels of safety.
Frans A. Oliehoek is associate professor at Delft University of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in computer science and an M.Sc. in artificial intelligence, both from the University of Amsterdam. He subsequently did postdocs at MIT, Maastricht University, and Amsterdam. In parallel he took up a position as lecturer at the University of Liverpool. His research interests lie in the intersection of machine learning, AI and game theory. He is considered an expert in the field of decision making under uncertainty, with emphasis on multiagent systems. He received the best PC-member award at AAMAS 2012.
The real world is too complex to be modelled in detail, so a Dutch researcher is helping computers prioritise what’s important to get things done
In 2017, a computer beat the world’s top-ranked human at the ancient Chinese game of Go. It was a landmark in artificial intelligence, and used a process known as sequential decision making: a decision is made, an event occurs, another decision follows, another event, and so on. But can such techniques be scaled to address the highly complex challenges confronting human beings in the real world, such as optimising the use of limited road space in dense urban areas? For Frans Oliehoek, the answer is no.
“The God of Go”: That’s how Ke Jie, a grandmaster at the game, described the Google computer that beat him 2 games to nil.
With today’s AI methods, says the associate professor at Delft University of Technology, “you are still using a model which requires training on millions and millions of games. The extent to which current algorithms can learn in the real world is very questionable. If you dropped a robot with these algorithms into a real world situation, it wouldn’t necessarily work.”
For instance, there’s a big gap between a computer learning from the primitive 84 by 84 pixel images of old-fashioned Atari games, and learning from the much higher resolution images required to capture real-world situations, such as the movement of cars around Manhattan. “There are real limits on how large the neural networks can be,” he explains. “We have found you are able to scale the model to two intersections. We have tried using 168 by 168 images, so you see a larger area. But the training becomes very slow already. It is not going to work.”
So Oliehoek is trying a different approach: ignore the detail. His solution is to abstract what is happening across a city, such as Manhattan, to focus on the most important “approximate influence points” – for instance, what enables the traffic lights at a particular intersection to respond correctly.
This is a pragmatic approach. Even if a computer were able to process data tracking the actual movements of Manhattan traffic in detail, much of that information wouldn’t be relevant to predicting the inflow of vehicles into a particular intersection. An enormous amount of computing power would be wasted. “But there are certain things that are going to increase the inflow of the cars, which we can model.” says Oliehoek. “I am fairly confident that we can use the recent advances in artificial intelligence to create the approximate influence points.”
Oliehoek intends to demonstrate his methods in two domains: traffic light control in an entire city, and robotic order-picking in a big warehouse. In the latter case, the goal is to optimise the actions of multiple robots working in warehouses. Unlike traffic lights, the robots in a warehouse will be moving from location to location, further increasing the complexity of the system.
In essence, Oliehoek is looking to create software that makes decisions by piecing together approximations of what is going on in each part of the system, rather than trying to build an exact simulation of the entire system. Such an approach mimics the way human beings try to anticipate what will happen next. “Do I have a model of your brain when I talk to you?” asks Oliehoek rhetorically.“No, as that would be too complex. But I can still predict the questions you might ask by using approximations.”
One of the most impressive things about the human brain is its ability to prioritise, quickly filtering relevant information out of the enormous amount of data being collected by the body’s sensors. “Humans are very good at picking the right level of abstraction to think about a problem,” says Oliehoek. “Abstraction is going to get a lot more attention in the field of AI. Greater use of abstraction would be getting to the basis of intelligence, which is to establish a hierarchy of problems.”
The AI race: 2 computer programmes compete at directing traffic on a simple road network
Next time you’re stuck in city traffic, you may be blaming the stupid traffic lights. And you’re probably right. Olihoek’s lab is teaching computers to do the job better.
This video, from his lab, shows lots of little cars trying to get from one side of a road map to another, as quickly as possible. The problem: they’re coming from eight different directions, and piling up at three intersections. How to control the traffic lights so they can all pass as efficiently as possible?
The video shows two different programs at work, and the graph charts the average time it takes a car to cross the city. At first, both programs do badly at managing the lights, and the average time soars. But after around 700 cars have passed, the systems start doing it better. They are teaching themselves.
Of course, real cities have more than three intersections, but the research is still underway. Until they finish, better ride your bike.
Mauro Birattari is a senior research associate of the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, based at Université Libre de Bruxelles. He received his master's degree in electrical and electronic engineering from the Politecnico di Milano, Italy, and his doctoral degree in information technologies from the ULB Faculty of Engineering. He has co-authored more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications in the field of computational intelligence. His research interests focus on swarm intelligence, swarm robotics, machine learning, and the application of artificial intelligence techniques to the automatic design of algorithms. He is an associate editor for the journals “Swarm Intelligence”, “Frontiers in Robotics AI: Multi-Robot Systems”, and “PeerJ Computer Science”.
A robot swarm might sound like something from a sinister science fiction movie. But in the real world, a swarm of robots could do a lot of good. They could clear a beach of garbage, retrieve plastic from the ocean or build a habitable abode on Mars. But the concept depends on getting scores of robots to work together effectively and avoid getting in each other’s way.
“Imagine a group of robots that work like social insects, such as ants,” says Mauro Birattari, senior research associate of the Belgian National Scientific Research Fund (FNRS). He is aiming to create a system that can translate complex instructions, such as “collect all the plastic here and put it into that container”, into control software that would instruct scores of robots to work together to complete the designated task. He somewhat grandly calls this system the Demiurge, named after Plato’s creator-god.
“My goal is to advance the state of the art in swarm robotics by developing the Demiurge: an intelligent system that is able to design and realise robot swarms in a totally integrated and automatic way,” Birattari explains.
His Demiurge system will select both the optimum hardware and the software modules required to complete each task. It would tap a library of low-level programmes, which it can combine on the fly. “Programing each single robot so that the robots collectively do what we want them to do is a complex problem because they interact with each other in unpredictable ways,” explains Birattari. “Today it is mostly done manually with developers programming the robots in a way that seems reasonable and then using trial and error to improve the overall system.”
Demiurge, Greek Dēmiourgos (“public worker”), plural Demiourgoi, in philosophy, a subordinate god who fashions and arranges the physical world to make it conform to a rational and eternal ideal. Plato used the term in the dialog Timaeus, an exposition of cosmology in which the Demiurge is the agent who takes the pre-existing materials of chaos, arranges them according to the models of eternal forms, and produces all the physical things of the world, including human bodies.
Of course, Birattari’s robots don’t look like the high-tech “Star Wars” models. For example, one of his garbage collection robots might resemble a simple vacuum cleaner. “Programming these robots is not as difficult as programming a humanoid robot, but it is still difficult to predict the interactions between two or more machines,” Birattari says. For this, he is using so-called “heuristic” methods: basically, rule-of-thumb methods to find good enough, rather than perfect, solutions.
Under a project just begun with ERC funding, Birattari and his team are developing a proof of concept system for automatically conceiving and programming robot swarms that can be demonstrated in a lab. “It will be able to take a description of a mission, generate the control software for that mission, and deploy the software on the robots so that the robots perform the mission,” he says. “They will be reasonably simple missions, but non-trivial and with features that map the real world. For example, we could work with 30 to 50 simple research robots, which can push objects into one corner of the environment in which they operate.”
The military is at the forefront of the development of robot swarms: there would be clear benefits to sending drones, rather than soldiers, into conflict zones. Today, military drones are remotely controlled; but in future, autonomous robots could work together to secure an area or clear land mines. OF course, Birattari’s ERC research is civilian, rather than military. And the first civilian applications, such as managing the stock in a warehouse, will be more straightforward – but no less important economically. Amazon and Carrefour, take note.
Sandra Hirche is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Technical University of Munich. She received a diploma engineer degree in aeronautical and aerospace engineering from the Technical University of Berlin, and a doctorate in engineering from TUM. She was a post-doc fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Her main research interests include cooperative, distributed and networked control with applications in human-robot interaction, multi-robot systems, and general robotics. She has published more than 200 papers and received multiple awards such as the Rohde & Schwarz Award for her PhD thesis and the IFAC World Congress Best Poster Award.
A German researcher is trying to get to the bottom of what it would take for us to really trust a robot – with our lives
Picture yourself infirm and elderly, and in need of some reliable, hands-on help with the basics of daily life. Now picture yourself with a robot helper. Would you trust it?
An ERC-funded research project led by Sandra Hirche, professor of control engineering at the Technical University of Munich, could help build that trust. Hirche and her team are using artificial intelligence to develop advanced robotic systems that can work alongside humans in a safe and intuitive manner. If she is successful, robots could act as care givers to the incapacitated, support physical rehabilitation, provide mobility and manipulation aids for the elderly, and – in the workplace - collaborate with humans in manufacturing processes.
Hirche is seeking to apply mathematics to this challenge. In conventional robotics, a machine designed to grasp a moving object uses sensors and cameras to continually establish where the object is, and then compute how much its motors need to move to make contact with the object. This feedback loop, which is the essence of what experts call control engineering, is underpinned by a prediction model that estimates how the object will behave while being grasped. And that’s how far you can trust the robot to do the task safely: it’s no more nor less reliable than the math used.
“Safety implies that they give you guarantees, which could be formal mathematical guarantees, about how the robot will move,” she says. But if a human is involved, the system must also predict his or her behaviour. And ideally, the robot would even adapt to the actual person it is working with. As it observes how the person moves, it would then continually adapt its statistical model. But people aren’t easy to predict.
So Hirche and her team are taking advantage of recent developments in machine learning, applying models derived from a 250-year old probability theorem developed by the English Reverend Thomas Bayes. “You can develop human models using observations from the past,” Hirche explains. “If you observe how you handed me a cup on three occasions, for example, then you can start to create a data-driven statistical model for that movement using machine learning.” That means assigning, based on the data, a probability for each potential outcome in the man-machine interaction.
The 18th century theorem helping machines learn
Based on the probability theorem developed by the Reverend Thomas Bayes in the eighteenth century, Bayesian methods are being used to improve machine learning algorithms by enabling them to fill in gaps in data and extract much more information from small datasets. Bayesian methods can also be used to estimate uncertainty in predictions, which can be very helpful in medicine, for example. When Bayesian methods are applied to deep learning, they can compress models 100-fold, saving time and money.
“We don’t only give you a prediction, but also give you a level of uncertainty of the prediction. It needs to be transparent, we need to be able to explain why we got to an outcome,” she says.
And that’s what Hirche and her team have accomplished in the lab in, for instance, scenarios in which a robot helps a human move an object from one place to another. Monitored by psychologists, the studies demonstrated that the new control algorithms work; humans perceive the robots as helpful. The team has also performed experiments where humans and robots have just touched each other, or have moved an object through a virtual maze.
This has applications beyond robotics. It could, for example, help manage degenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s Disease, in which symptoms fluctuate unpredictably over time. “We are working with clinicians on a project in which the patient would wear a smart watch and we can use the motion data it captures to estimate the severity of the symptoms,” says Hirche. “It is able to judge quite reliably the human motor state, which can be used to change the medication, which in the future could be even administered by a pump, in a very automatic way. The results are so much better than existing techniques.”